Internet of Things (IoT) Services

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the “smart home”, covering devices and appliances (such as lighting fixtures, thermostats, home security systems and cameras, and other home appliances) that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers.

Industrial applications, also known as IIoT, industrial IoT devices acquire and analyze data from connected equipment, (OT) operational technology, locations, and people. Combined with operational technology (OT) monitoring devices, IIOT helps regulate and monitor industrial systems.

IoT’s major significant trend in recent years is the explosive growth of devices connected and controlled by the Internet. The wide range of applications for IoT technology means that the specifics can be very different from one device to the next but there are basic characteristics shared by most.

The IoT creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

There are many technologies that enable the IoT. Crucial to the field is the network used to communicate between devices of an IoT installation, a role that several wireless or wired technologies may fulfill.

Short-range wireless

Bluetooth mesh networking – Specification providing a mesh networking variant to Bluetooth low energy (BLE) with an increased number of nodes and a standardized application layer (Models).

Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi) – Wireless communication technology similar to the Wi-Fi standard, but using visible light communication for increased bandwidth.

Near-field communication (NFC) – Communication protocols enabling two electronic devices to communicate within a 4 cm range.

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) – Technology using electromagnetic fields to read data stored in tags embedded in other items.

Wi-Fi – technology for local area networking based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, where devices may communicate through a shared access point or directly between individual devices.

ZigBee – Communication protocols for personal area networking based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, providing low power consumption, low data rate, low cost, and high throughput.

Z-Wave – Wireless communications protocol used primarily for home automation and security applications

Medium-range wireless

LTE-Advanced – High-speed communication specification for mobile networks. Provides enhancements to the LTE standard with extended coverage, higher throughput, and lower latency.

Long-range wireless

Low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) – Wireless networks designed to allow long-range communication at a low data rate, reducing power and cost for transmission. Available LPWAN technologies and protocols: LoRaWan, Sigfox, NB-IoT, Weightless, RPMA.

Very small aperture terminal (VSAT) – Satellite communication technology using small dish antennas for narrowband and broadband data.

Wired

Ethernet – General purpose networking standard using twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches.

Power-line communication (PLC)– Communication technology using electrical wiring to carry power and data. Specifications such as HomePlug or G.hn utilize PLC for networking IoT devices.



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